Nine Ways to Display a Floating-Point Number

(Updated June 22, 2015: added a tenth display form, “decimal integer times a power of ten”.)

In the strictest sense, converting a decimal number to binary floating-point means putting it in IEEE 754 format — a multi-byte structure composed of a sign field, an exponent field, and a significand field. Viewing it in this raw form (binary or hex) is useful, but there are other forms that are more enlightening.

I’ve written an online converter that takes a decimal number as input, converts it to floating-point, and then displays its exact floating-point value in ten forms (including the two raw IEEE forms). I will show examples of these forms in this article.

Continue reading “Nine Ways to Display a Floating-Point Number”

PHP Converts 2.2250738585072012e-308 Incorrectly

While testing my new decimal to floating-point converter I discovered a bug in old territory: PHP incorrectly converts the number 2.2250738585072012e-308.

<?php printf("%.17g",2.2250738585072012e-308); ?>

This prints 2.2250738585072009E-308; it should print 2.2250738585072014e-308. (I verified that the internal double value is wrong; the printed value correctly represents it.)

Continue reading “PHP Converts 2.2250738585072012e-308 Incorrectly”

Floating-Point Will Still Be Broken In the Year 2091

Variants of the question “Is floating point math broken?” are asked every day on I don’t think the questions will ever stop, not even by the year 2091 (that’s the year that popped into my head after just reading the gazillionth such question).
A representative floating-point question asked on in 2009, projected to be just as popular in 2091 (click thumbnail to enlarge)

Continue reading “Floating-Point Will Still Be Broken In the Year 2091”

Testing Some Edge Case Conversions In App Inventor

After discovering that App Inventor represents numbers in floating-point, I wanted to see how it handled some edge case decimal/floating-point conversions. In one group of tests, I gave it numbers that were converted to floating-point incorrectly in other programming languages (I include the famous PHP and Java numbers). In another group of tests, I gave it numbers that, when converted to floating-point and back, demonstrate the rounding algorithm used when printing halfway cases. It turns out that App Inventor converts all examples correctly, and prints numbers using the round-half-to-even rule.

Continue reading “Testing Some Edge Case Conversions In App Inventor”

Numbers In App Inventor Are Stored As Floating-Point

I am exploring App Inventor, an Android application development environment for novice programmers. I am teaching it to my kids, as an introductory step towards “real” app development. While playing with it I wondered: are its numbers implemented in decimal? No, they aren’t. They are implemented in double-precision binary floating-point. I put together a few simple block programs to demonstrate this, and to expose the usual floating-point “gotchas”.

App Inventor Blocks To Display 0.1 to 17 Digits
App Inventor Blocks To Display 0.1 to 17 Digits

Continue reading “Numbers In App Inventor Are Stored As Floating-Point”

GCC Avoids Double Rounding Errors With Round-To-Odd

GCC was recently fixed so that its decimal to floating-point conversions are done correctly; it now calls the MPFR function mpfr_strtofr() instead of using its own algorithm. However, GCC still does its conversion in two steps: first it converts to an intermediate precision (160 or 192 bits), and then it rounds that result to a target precision (53 bits for double-precision floating-point). That is double rounding — how does it avoid double rounding errors? It uses round-to-odd rounding on the intermediate result.

Continue reading “GCC Avoids Double Rounding Errors With Round-To-Odd”

real.c Rounding Is Perfect (GCC Now Converts Correctly)

GCC, the GNU Compiler Collection, recently fixed this eight and a half year old bug: “GCC Bugzilla – Bug 21718: real.c rounding not perfect.” This bug was the cause of incorrect decimal string to binary floating-point conversions. I first wrote about it over three years ago, and then recently in September and October. I also just wrote a detailed description of GCC’s conversion algorithm last month.

This fix, which will be available in version 4.9, scraps the old algorithm and replaces it with a call to MPFR function mpfr_strtofr(). I tested the fix on version 4.8.1, replacing its copy of gcc/real.c with the fixed one. I found no incorrect conversions.

Continue reading “real.c Rounding Is Perfect (GCC Now Converts Correctly)”

Gay’s strtod() Returns Zero For Inputs Just Above 2^-1075

While running some of GCC’s string to double conversion testcases I discovered a bug in David Gay’s strtod(): it converts some very small subnormal numbers incorrectly. Unlike numbers 2-1075 or smaller, which should convert to zero under round-to-nearest/ties-to-even rounding, numbers between 2-1075 and 2-1074 should convert to 2-1074, the smallest number representable in double-precision binary floating-point. strtod() correctly converts the former to 0, but it incorrectly converts the latter to 0 as well.

(Update 11/25/13: This bug has been fixed.)

Continue reading “Gay’s strtod() Returns Zero For Inputs Just Above 2^-1075”

College Notebook: When I Was Taught Floating-Point

In my article “Floating-Point Questions Are Endless on” I showed examples of the many questions asked that demonstrate lack of knowledge of the most basic property of floating-point — that not all decimal values are representable in binary. In response to a reader’s comment on my article I wrote:

It would be interesting to know how it’s taught today (it’s been a very long time since I was taught it). I can’t imagine though that the person teaching it wouldn’t say — within a sentence or two of saying “floating-point” — that it “can’t represent all decimal numbers accurately”.

That prompted me to look through my box of thirty plus year old college (undergraduate) notebooks. I found notebooks for four classes in which I was taught floating-point. The notes from three of those classes confirm what I thought — that we were warned early of the decimal/binary mismatch. But in the first class of the four — the beginner’s class — it’s less clear what we were told. I’ll show you images of the relevant excerpts from my notes. (I notice I had some elements of cursive in my handwriting back then.)

Continue reading “College Notebook: When I Was Taught Floating-Point”

GLIBC strtod() Incorrectly Converts 2^-1075

A reader of my blog, Water Qian, reported a bug to me after reading my article “How GLIBC’s strtod() Works”. I recently tested strtod(), which was was fixed to do correct rounding in glibc 2.17; I had found no incorrect conversions.

Water tested the conversion of 2-1075 — in retrospect an obvious corner case I should have tried — and found that it converted incorrectly to 0x0.0000000000001p-1022. That’s 2-1074, the smallest double-precision value. It should have converted to 0, under round-to-nearest/ties-to-even rounding.

(Update 11/13/13: This bug has been fixed for version 2.19.)

Continue reading “GLIBC strtod() Incorrectly Converts 2^-1075”

Floating-Point Questions Are Endless on

For years I’ve followed, through RSS, floating-point related questions on Every day it seems there is a question like “why does 19.24 plus 6.95 equal 26.189999999999998?” I decided to track these questions, to see if my sense of their frequency was correct. I found that, in the last 40 days, there were 18 such questions. That’s not one per day, but still — a lot!

Continue reading “Floating-Point Questions Are Endless on”

How GCC Converts Decimal Literals to Floating-Point

I’ve written about two implementations of decimal string to double-precision binary floating-point conversion: David Gay’s strtod(), and glibc’s strtod(). GCC, the GNU Compiler Collection, has yet another implementation; it uses it to convert decimal floating-point literals to double-precision. It is much simpler than David Gay’s and glibc’s implementations, but there’s a hitch: limited precision causes it to produce some incorrect conversions. Nonetheless, I wanted to explain how it works, since I’ve been studying it recently. (I looked specifically at the conversion of floating-point literals in C code, although the same code is used for other languages.)

Continue reading “How GCC Converts Decimal Literals to Floating-Point”