I’ve written about the formulas used to compute the number of decimal digits in a binary integer and the number of decimal digits in a binary fraction. In this article, I’ll use those formulas to determine the maximum number of digits required by the double-precision (double), single-precision (float), and quadruple-precision (quad) IEEE binary floating-point formats.
The maximum digit counts are useful if you want to print the full decimal value of a floating-point number (worst case format specifier and buffer size) or if you are writing or trying to understand a decimal to floating-point conversion routine (worst case number of input digits that must be converted).
Continue reading “Maximum Number of Decimal Digits In Binary Floating-Point Numbers”
PHP’s base_convert() is a useful function that converts integers between any pair of bases, 2 through 36. However, you might hesitate to use it after reading this vague and mysterious warning in its documentation:
base_convert() may lose precision on large numbers due to properties related to the internal “double” or “float” type used.
The truth is that it works perfectly for integers up to a certain maximum — you just have to know what that is. I will show you this maximum value in each of the 35 bases, and how to check if the values you are using are within this limit.
Continue reading “The Safe Range For PHP’s base_convert()”
While testing my new decimal to floating-point converter I discovered a bug in old territory: PHP incorrectly converts the number 2.2250738585072012e-308.
<?php printf("%.17g",2.2250738585072012e-308); ?>
This prints 2.2250738585072009E-308; it should print 2.2250738585072014e-308. (I verified that the internal double value is wrong; the printed value correctly represents it.)
Continue reading “PHP Converts 2.2250738585072012e-308 Incorrectly”
For years I’ve followed, through RSS, floating-point related questions on stackoverflow.com. Every day it seems there is a question like “why does 19.24 plus 6.95 equal 26.189999999999998?” I decided to track these questions, to see if my sense of their frequency was correct. I found that, in the last 40 days, there were 18 such questions. That’s not one per day, but still — a lot!
Continue reading “Floating-Point Questions Are Endless on stackoverflow.com”
The infinite loop I discovered in PHP was caused by a bug in its decimal to floating-point conversion routine, which is based on David Gay’s widely used strtod() function. strtod() has a “correction loop,” the purpose of which is to refine an initial estimate of a converted double-precision value to its correctly rounded result. This got me thinking: infinite loops notwithstanding, how many times should the loop execute? Does it depend on the accuracy of the initial estimate? I instrumented strtod() and gathered some data to help answer these questions.
The most interesting thing I discovered was this: strtod()’s correction procedure can execute at most three times. So why was it coded as an infinite loop?
Continue reading “Properties of the Correction Loop in David Gay’s strtod()”
Recently I discovered a bug in PHP’s decimal to floating-point conversion routine, zend_strtod(): it went into an infinite loop trying to convert the decimal string 2.2250738585072011e-308 to floating-point. zend_strtod() is based on David Gay’s strtod() function in dtoa.c, as are the decimal to floating-point conversion routines of many other open source projects. So why hasn’t this bug affected these other projects?
zend_strtod() is based on a very old copy of dtoa.c. The current version of dtoa.c is immune to the 2.2250738585072011e-308 bug — and has been since 1997 by my reckoning. So while the ‘volatile’ keyword fixes the PHP problem, I think there’s a better solution: upgrade zend_strtod() to the latest dtoa.c.
Continue reading “A Better Fix for the PHP 2.2250738585072011e-308 Bug”
Recently I discovered a serious bug in x87 builds of PHP: PHP’s decimal to floating-point conversion routine, zend_strtod(), went into an infinite loop when converting the decimal string 2.2250738585072011e-308 to double-precision binary floating-point. This problem was fixed with a simple one line of code change to zend_strtod.c:
double aadj, aadj1, adj;
was changed to
volatile double aadj, aadj1, adj;
Why does this fix the problem? I uncovered the very specific reason: it prevents a double rounding on underflow error.
Continue reading “Why “Volatile” Fixes the 2.2250738585072011e-308 Bug”
I stumbled upon a very strange bug in PHP; this statement sends it into an infinite loop:
<?php $d = 2.2250738585072011e-308; ?>
(The same thing happens if you write the number without scientific notation — 324 decimal places.)
I hit this bug in the two places I tested for it: on Windows (PHP 5.3.1 under XAMPP 1.7.3), and on Linux (PHP Version 5.3.2-1ubuntu4.5) — both on an Intel Core Duo processor. I’ve written a bug report.
Continue reading “PHP Hangs On Numeric Value 2.2250738585072011e-308”
What does this C program print?
int main (void)
The answer depends on which compiler you use. If you compile the program with Visual C++ and run on it on Windows, it prints 0.3; if you compile it with gcc and run it on Linux, it prints 0.2.
The compilers — actually, their run time libraries — are using different rules to break decimal rounding ties. The two-digit number 0.25, which has an exact binary floating-point representation, is equally near two one-digit decimal numbers: 0.2 and 0.3; either is an acceptable answer. Visual C++ uses the round-half-away-from-zero rule, and gcc (actually, glibc) uses the round-half-to-even rule, also known as bankers’ rounding.
This inconsistency of printed output is not limited to C — it spans many programming environments. In all, I tested fixed-format printing in nineteen environments: in thirteen of them, round-half-away-from-zero was used; in the remaining six, round-half-to-even was used. I also discovered an anomaly in some environments: numbers like 0.15 — which look like halfway cases but are actually not when viewed in binary — may be rounded incorrectly. I’ll report my results in this article.
Continue reading “Inconsistent Rounding of Printed Floating-Point Numbers”
PHP has a component called BCMath which does arbitrary-precision, decimal arithmetic. I used BCMath in my decimal/binary converter because:
- Arbitrary-precision lets it operate on very large and very small numbers, numbers that can’t be represented in standard computer word sizes.
- Decimal arithmetic lets it use the same algorithms I’d use to convert between decimal and binary by hand.
(If you’ve written a conversion routine in standard code, especially one to convert decimal fractions to binary, you’ll see the advantage of the second point.)
This article describes the implementation of my conversion routines with BCMath.
Continue reading “Base Conversion in PHP Using BCMath”
The PHP programming language has many built-in functions for converting numbers from one base to another. In fact, it has so many functions that it can be hard to know which to use. Some functions have similar capabilities, and some work with parameters of different types. We’ll sort through the differences in this article, and explain the proper context in which to use each function.
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Recently I showed that programming languages vary in how much precision they allow in printed floating-point fractions. Not only do they vary, but most don’t meet my standard — printing, to full precision, decimal values that have exact floating-point representations. Here I’ll present a similar study for floating-point integers, which had similar results.
Continue reading “Print Precision of Floating-Point Integers Varies Too”