I’ve always thought Java was one of the languages that prints the shortest decimal strings that round-trip back to floating-point. I was wrong.
About a year ago Bruce Dawson informed me that Microsoft is fixing their decimal to floating-point conversion routine in the next release of Visual Studio; I finally made the time to test the new code. I installed Visual Studio Community 2015 Release Candidate and ran my old C++ testcases. The good news: all of the individual conversion errors that I wrote about are fixed. The bad news: many errors remain.
While testing my new decimal to floating-point converter I discovered a bug in old territory: PHP incorrectly converts the number 2.2250738585072012e-308.
<?php printf("%.17g",2.2250738585072012e-308); ?>
This prints 2.2250738585072009E-308; it should print 2.2250738585072014e-308. (I verified that the internal double value is wrong; the printed value correctly represents it.)
While running some of GCC’s string to double conversion testcases I discovered a bug in David Gay’s strtod(): it converts some very small subnormal numbers incorrectly. Unlike numbers 2-1075 or smaller, which should convert to zero under round-to-nearest/ties-to-even rounding, numbers between 2-1075 and 2-1074 should convert to 2-1074, the smallest number representable in double-precision binary floating-point. strtod() correctly converts the former to 0, but it incorrectly converts the latter to 0 as well.
(Update 11/25/13: This bug has been fixed.)
A reader of my blog, Water Qian, reported a bug to me after reading my article “How GLIBC’s strtod() Works”. I recently tested strtod(), which was was fixed to do correct rounding in glibc 2.17; I had found no incorrect conversions.
Water tested the conversion of 2-1075 — in retrospect an obvious corner case I should have tried — and found that it converted incorrectly to 0x0.0000000000001p-1022. That’s 2-1074, the smallest double-precision value. It should have converted to 0, under round-to-nearest/ties-to-even rounding.
(Update 11/13/13: This bug has been fixed for version 2.19.)
Recently I wrote about my retesting of the gcc C compiler’s string to double conversions and how it appeared that its incorrect conversions were due to an architecture-dependent bug. My examples converted incorrectly on 32-bit systems, but worked on 64-bit systems — at least most of them. I decided to dig into gcc’s source code and trace its execution, and I found the architecture dependency I was looking for. But I found more than that: due to limited precision, gcc will do incorrect conversions on any system. I’ve constructed an example to demonstrate this.
Paul Bristow, a Boost.Math library author and reader of my blog, recently alerted me to a problem he discovered many years ago in Visual C++: some double-precision floating-point values fail to round-trip through a stringstream as a 17-digit decimal string. Interestingly, the 17-digit strings that C++ generates are not the problem; they are correctly rounded. The problem is that the conversion of those strings to floating-point is sometimes incorrect, off by one binary ULP.
I’ve previously discovered that Visual Studio makes incorrect decimal to floating-point conversions, and that Microsoft is OK with it — at least based on their response to my now deleted bug report. But incorrect decimal to floating-point conversions in this context seems like a problem that needs fixing. When you serialize a double to a 17-digit decimal string, shouldn’t you get the same double back later? Apparently Microsoft doesn’t think so, because Paul’s bug report has also been deleted.
Last week, a reader of my blog, Geza Herman, told me about a bug he found in David Gay’s strtod() function. In random testing of decimal numbers nearly halfway between double-precision floating-point numbers, he discovered this 53-digit number, which converts incorrectly:
As Geza noted, the problem is in the bigcomp() function, an optimization that kicks in for long decimal inputs. I traced his example through bigcomp() — I’ll show you what’s going on.
Recently I discovered a bug in PHP’s decimal to floating-point conversion routine, zend_strtod(): it went into an infinite loop trying to convert the decimal string 2.2250738585072011e-308 to floating-point. zend_strtod() is based on David Gay’s strtod() function in dtoa.c, as are the decimal to floating-point conversion routines of many other open source projects. So why hasn’t this bug affected these other projects?
zend_strtod() is based on a very old copy of dtoa.c. The current version of dtoa.c is immune to the 2.2250738585072011e-308 bug — and has been since 1997 by my reckoning. So while the ‘volatile’ keyword fixes the PHP problem, I think there’s a better solution: upgrade zend_strtod() to the latest dtoa.c.
Recently I discovered that Java converts some very small decimal numbers to double-precision floating-point incorrectly. While investigating that bug, I stumbled upon something very strange: Java’s decimal to floating-point conversion routine, Double.parseDouble(), sometimes returns two different results for the same decimal string. The culprit appears to be just-in-time compilation of Double.parseDouble() into SSE instructions, which exposes an architecture-dependent bug in Java’s conversion algorithm — and another real-world example of a double rounding on underflow error. I’ll describe the problem, and take you through the detective work to find its cause.
While verifying the fix to the Java 2.2250738585072012e-308 bug I found an OpenJDK testcase for verifying conversions of edge case subnormal double-precision numbers. I ran the testcase, expecting it to work — but it failed! I determined it fails because Java converts some subnormal numbers incorrectly.
(By the way, this bug exists in prior versions of Java — it has nothing to do with the fix.)
Oracle has released a fix for security alert CVE-2010-4476 — the “Java Hangs on 2.2250738585072012e-308 bug.” The fix comes in the form of something called the FPUpdater Tool, which updates rt.jar. I tested it on my Windows XP system and it works.